The executive order signed Thursday by President Joe Biden sets admirable targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fighting climate change. Half of all new vehicles sold in 2030 are to be zero-emissions vehicles, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, or fuel cell electric vehicles (see news section below for more details).
But I have some questions for Biden:
—Will automakers actually fulfill this order, and what happens if they don’t? (The answer seems to be no, since it’s been described as a nonbinding goal.)
—Can we expect the saying from the 1989 movie, Field of Dreams, to be fulfilled? “If you build it they will come,” being that saying. If automakers do roll out half their available new vehicles as ZEVs, will there be enough purchases to make it profitable and long lasting? Will the charging and fueling infrastructure be enough?
—Could there be other ways to reach these big picture targets?
As I’ve written about before, it’s likely going to take much longer to hit that admirable target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fighting climate change. The good news is that the needed elements are already here, and key players in the clean transportation arena will continue to lead the way.
There is a period of transition before those wonderful targets can be met — with fleets, individuals who own zero emission vehicles, charging/fueling infrastructure builders and suppliers, vehicle makers/OEMs, technology partners and suppliers, clean fuel and energy suppliers, government agencies, and associations and research centers, already playing a key role in the development of clean transportation as, eventually, the new normal.
Here’s hoping that vaccinations continue and the latest surge in Covid-19 delta and other variants begin a rapid decline, with vehicle emissions reductions following right behind. In the meantime, getting familiar with and connected to the vast resources in clean vehicles and fuels might be a good way to spend some of our downtime.
WARNING: Some of the publications I list below will be cutting off your free access to viewing articles and websites. They’re looking for paid subscribers, or free access to members of their group. Of course, you can always search for other sources of the news they’re reporting.
Nonprofit Organizations (NPOs) & Consulting Firms:
Most all stakeholders in clean transportation are very familiar with CALSTART, but here are a few interesting facts. The founders say two forces created the organization in 1992 — defense and aerospace spending was being cut, leaving quite a few talented people without their jobs; and increasing interest in cutting back air pollution in the US, which was the force behind the California Air Resources Board setting targets for the sale of zero-emission vehicles. Now the nonprofit consortium has offices in New York, Michigan, Colorado and California. The NPO is dedicated to the modernization and adoption of clean vehicles. The group’s focus has expanded to global through its Drive to Zero program, with the vision of supporting the role zero-emission trucks will play in reaching collective Paris Agreement goals; more than 270 member companies and partners worldwide are participating. You can get on that project’s newsletter list, and sign up for the CALSTART Compass newsletter that covers newsworthy projects, studies and reports, and events.
Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA)
Established in 1989, EDTA is a cross-industry trade association promoting the advancement of electric drive technology and electrified transportation. Members cover the gamut in the electric drive value chain: OEMs, battery and component manufacturers, utilities, charging infrastructure developers, and others. They follow a three-prong strategy by emphasizing the economic, national security, and environmental benefits of displacing oil with electricity in battery and fuel cell-powered vehicles. They would like to see the U.S. to adopt an aggressive five-year plan that catalyzes growth with significant, long-term investments in market expansion and accelerates technology development and deployment. You can join a list for weekly updates and analysis of news developments. There’s also official statements such as what EDTA leaders think of President Biden’s executive order on zero-emission vehicles.
International Council on Clean Transportation
The ICCT started up in 2001 and now has offices in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Berlin, and Beijing. Its mission is to improve the environmental performance and energy efficiency of road, marine, and air transportation, to benefit public health and mitigate climate change. The organization has provided research, analysis, and data for environmental policymakers. One of its studies has provided a global comparison of the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of combustion engine and electric passenger cars.
One of the more interesting parts of its history is the role ICCT played in “dieselgate.” The ICCT had commissioned researchers at West Virginia University to test Volkswagen diesel car emissions in 2013. The following year, the NPO alerted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board that the models displayed much higher levels of nitrogen oxide emissions than permitted by law. In September 2015, the EPA announced that the German automaker could be liable for up to $18 billion in penalties. That came from charges that VW had been using software on almost 500,000 VW and Audi 2.0 liter diesel cars sold through the 2009 and 2015 model years that circumvented EPA emissions standards.
Gladstein Neandross & Associates (GNA)
Since its founding in 1993, GNA has been offering a blend of technical, funding, creative, and strategy development services to public- and private-sector clients spanning the clean energy and advanced transportation sectors. Its projects have earned national awards and recognition from agencies and associations, including the South Coast Air Quality Management District, Coalition for Clean Air, and the California Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition. Organizing events like Advanced Clean Transportation (ACT) Expo over the past decade have made GNA more visible and significant in the clean transportation sector. Other events put on by GNA have included California Dairy Sustainability Summit, Renewable Gas 360, Rethink Methane Symposium, High Horsepower (HHP) Summit, and NGV Industry Summit.
Propane Education & Research Council
PERC provides leading propane safety and training programs and invests in research and development of new propane-powered technologies. Its programs benefit a variety of markets including transportation, agriculture, commercial landscaping, residential, and commercial building. PERC came to be when the U.S. Congress passed the Propane Education and Research Act (PERA), which was signed into law in 1996. PERC’s operations and activities are funded by an assessment levied on each gallon of propane gas at the point it is odorized or imported into the U.S. PERC has been committed for several years to promote propane autogas through research projects, government and industry liaisons, and public education. Take a look at the Comprehensive Compliance Handbook, which offers a variety of regulations, codes, and standards that apply to the propane industry systems that you install and service to effectively comply with requirements that can apply to your business in your jurisdiction. You can subscribe the the e-newsletter to stay current with the latest propane news, stories, videos, and more.
Natural Gas Vehicles for America is a national organization dedicated to the development of a growing, profitable, and sustainable market for vehicles powered by natural gas or biomethane. It represents more than 200 companies, environmental groups, and government organizations interested in the promotion and use of natural gas and biomethane as transportation fuels. Member companies produce, distribute, and market natural gas and renewable natural gas across the country; manufacture and service natural gas vehicles, engines, and equipment; and operate fleets powered by clean-burning gaseous fuels. Resources offered to those interested in natural gas vehicles include information on numerous federal and state grant opportunities that assist fleets in transitioning to the clean fuel. The VW Trust Action Center provides information the Environmental Mitigation Trust, which states and territories may use to invest in transportation projects that will reduce NOx emissions. It’s annual conference and trade show will be taking place Oct. 19-21 in Phoenix. You can also check out NGV news and insights.
RNG Coalition is a non-profit organization dedicated to the sustainable advancement of renewable natural gas (RNG) as a clean, green, alternative and domestic energy resource — and as a key component and partial solution to addressing global climate change. The coalition has seen its efforts pay off, with hundreds of RNG projects either operational, under construction, or in development in North America. Job creation has been very good with RNG production facilities creating five-to-seven times more jobs than an equivalently sized petroleum refinery. More recently, stakeholders have found that hydrogen generators can use RNG or biomethane to create renewable hydrogen (RH2), providing similar opportunities for farmers and local communities to create clean, storable energy, while reducing waste, decarbonizing, and making use of existing infrastructure. The NPOs annual conference, RNG Summit, also known as the U.S. Federal Fly-In & Policy Forum, took place May 11, 2021, in Ft. Worth, Texas.
Plug In America
Plug In America is a non-profit, supporter-driven advocacy group that has a long list of accomplishments contributing to making electric vehicles a viable, appealing choice for US car owners. The organization helps consumers, policy-makers, auto manufacturers and others to understand the powerful benefits of driving electric. That comes through practical, objective information for making their best choices when buying a plug-in electric vehicle that fits their lifestyle. Plug In America founded National Drive Electric Week, the world’s largest celebration of the plug-in vehicle, which brought together over 180,000 attendees across 324 events in 2019, across all 50 states. As reported recently, the organization’s PlugStar Program is nationally recognized for educating consumers and dealers. Last year, the NPO conducted its first annual survey of EV consumers—both drivers and those considering an electric vehicle. A more recent effort has been encouraging members to tell Congress to support President Biden’s full $174 billion EV investment.
American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE)
ACORE is a national NPO that unites finance, policy and technology to accelerate the transition to a renewable energy economy. Founded in 2001, ACORE works to unite finance, policy and technology to accelerate the transition to a renewable energy economy. Members are active in renewable energy technologies and constituencies, including developers, manufacturers, top financial institutions, major corporate renewable energy buyers, grid technology providers, utilities, professional service firms, academic institutions, and allied nonprofit groups. Serving these communities includes convening key stakeholders, facilitating partnerships, educating senior officials on important policies, publishing research and analysis on pressing issues, and undertaking strategic outreach on the policies and financial structures essential to renewable energy growth. For more on upcoming events, click here; and go here for a newsletter sign up.
The global consulting firm offers the ICF Climate Center which provides in-depth research and insights that help organizations establish clear, practical pathways forward through the combination of climate science and predictive analytics. For clean vehicles and fuels, the firm offers technical expertise and creative solutions to promote advanced technologies and alternative fuels across the transportation sector. For transportation electrification the company is fluent in the technology, infrastructure, and market forces to make the switch. With low carbon fuel standards, the consulting firm works with regulatory agencies in program design and implementation, and to assist fuel providers with understanding compliance options and market trends.
E&E News publishes five daily newsletters tracking energy and environmental policies and rules, research study findings, the effects of climate change, and the political and legal battles being fought in these sectors. It is a paid subscription service, but you can get placed on a short-term reader list to see if it’s worth the time and money spent. It does offer in-depth research and analysis, and can be the only source available on some very important topics.
Green Car Congress
This publication is truly unique, and it does require that you stay open to learning about new, cutting-edge technology (with a few fundamentals from physics and engineering included). Mike Millikin started it up in 2004, and it’s been the only publication like it; except for occasional features and think-pieces in automotive, business, and science publications. Its subject matter has expanded in recent years — as have the automotive, transportation, and energy industries — to include connected and autonomous technologies, advanced batteries and energy storage, and a wide range of alternative, clean fuels and energy sources.
NGT News (Next-Gen Transportation) has become the only publication like it, while a few years ago there was at least one direct competitor and a few weekly editions. This publication provides daily news updates read by fleets, OEMs, fuel suppliers, technology providers, and infrastructure developers staying informed on clean transportation. Staying current in this field requires a few topics — technology innovations, government policies, the regulatory structure, corporate developments, new vehicle/product launches, and r&d developments. A good publication for those wanting to stay informed on the wide spectrum of information.
Green Car Reports
Go to that site to see Green Car Reports’ Best Car to Buy 2021, first drive reviews of electric and hybrid vehicles, and coverage of how current green cars are holding up over time in sales, performance, and value. It’s a good consumer pub to read, with a few big picture/business items such as what’s happening in Washington, DC. The publication is owned by Internet Brands, which owns and operates other automotive publications such as CarsDirect, The Car Connection, Motor Authority, and Auto Credit Express. Green Car Reports gets to tap into that database of resources for covering new vehicles and technologies.
InsideEVs has its share of rivals for being the lead publication in the electric vehicle space. While I do check out Electrek and news features from Bloomberg, Reuters, Automotive News, and major media sources, InsideEVs is an excellent one-stop shopping site for me — the latest offerings, the competitive climate, what Tesla and its chief are up to, the charging infrastructure, government incentives and other developments in global markets, and the latest data and analytics on EV sales and other fascinating trends. Plus, all the details you probably want to know when shopping for EVs.
It’s a popular site in the US for cleantech news and commentary, with a focus on solar energy, wind energy, electric cars, and other clean technologies. It does offers some insightful data and analysis articles on electric vehicle sales, popularity of certain models and why that’s the case, and the demands that cleantech industries face overcoming regulatory hurdles, incentives that may be dwindling, power players in the war over climate change, and a few other relevant topics. You might learn how long it takes for solar panels to pay for themselves, and overcoming hurdles on the public’s perceptions of electric vehicles.
What will come out of efforts to gain major funding and development projects from Washington, DC, on the nation’s highway and transportation infrastructure? Well, then go to this publications for in-depth coverage of the political and legal issues involved, and how it would be carried out across the country. Those reading this industry publication can read about the top for-more carriers and logistics companies, the world of intermodal transport, and what fleet operators are doing to comply with government environmental and energy requirements and corporate sustainability policies.
This is a fairly new publication that’s doing a very good job of covering the gamut on all things you might be wondering about trucks. That would cover autonomous trucks; commercial vehicles powered by electricity and other clean fuels; the state of retail sales for pickups, SUVS/crossovers, and vans; the business and fleet market; freight and logistics and some of the regulatory structure shaping it; new trucks product launches; trucking shows; and taking adventures in your truck or SUV and where you can find the necessary gear. Los Angeles Times veteran Jerry Hirsch became the editor in chief, and works with a team of other recognized journalistic names in the field. They do offer an effective mix of what the B2B and consumer reader communities would like to know more about.
GreenBiz is a must read, along with CleanTechnica and Environment + Energy Leader, for professionals working in the sphere of sustainability. Read all about net zero policies, resilient supply chains, enforcing ESG standards, carbon credit trading, how industries are decarbonizing, the critical role cities are playing, and the best in corporate sustainability practices. Green vehicles will also get a bit of coverage here, such as one of the field reporters attending a specialized conference and trade show. Its conference has been well attended with a lot of name speakers, such as Bill Gates at the February online conference.
Environment + Energy Leader
Formerly known as Environmental Leader, this publication changed its name to address what other professionals in the field (including clean transportation) understand — reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, power stations, production plants, waste management, and more, is essential. Then there’s all the energy needed to keep it running — and the total lifecycle of how the energy is generated and what it all means. It’s more of a B2B publication than its direct competitors, offering details on how global governments are regulating and working with corporations and NPOs to carry out emissions and energy mandates; and deals being made between companies to advance the business model and profitability of sustainability in all the forms it takes.
Bobit Business Media launched this publication about three years ago to address the growing interest fleet professionals have in the future of transport — autonomous, electric, connected, and shared rides. Other topics being covered in this publication include smart cities, new technology breakthroughs, connected fleets, fleet management as a service, and the latest in green trucks that fleets are deploying. The fleet manager’s business model is always being addressed, such as saving in energy and operating costs; safety issues with self-driving vehicles; predictive maintenance practices; and what automakers have to say about the future of their product offerings and incentives being offered to fleets. One of its sister publications is Charged Fleet, which tracks the latest in electric vehicles and hybrids that fleets can consider.
This is the Bible for all things biofuels, and its founder, Jim Lane, is a known figure for anyone tracking the subject matter. It’s being run by Nuu Media that includes Biofuels Digest, The Daily Digest, and the Weekly Circular. These publications track the bioeconomy and all its implications — from the corn growers versus oil companies though the federal Renewable Fuel Standard and state regulations for ethanol in gasoline; advanced biofuels that may be sidetracked and others that are succeeding; investments in decarbonizing projects for meeting climate change mandates; biogas pipelines that are being built, and many other highly technical articles to read. Parent company Nuu Media also produces online media, conferences, webinars, data services and original streamed content, focused on the advanced bioeconomy.
Charged Electric Vehicles Magazine
Charged continues to be a glossy magazine and internet publication that covers all things electric. It’s designed like a Car and Driver for electric vehicle buyers. It also digs into the business of EVs, with profiles of startup carmakers and technology supplier partners they’re working with. It’s a good one for how-to guides and technical descriptions of all that goes into electric drivetrains, electrical systems, battery packs, and chargers. It’s more consumer and car focused, but you will find profiles of electric truck makers as well that are providing delivery trucks, heavy-duty freight haulers, and utility applications. You’ll also be viewing advertisements from OEMs and suppliers to the business; it is a marketplace for those doing business in the EV space.
Waste Dive provides in-depth coverage and analysis on subject matter that spreads its reach over a wide range these days. It’s not all about picking up and hauling trash in a clean vehicle. This publication digs into refuse collection and transfer, recycling, organics, zero waste, landfills, policy, and more. It’s owned and operated by Industry Dive, a media company that says it reaches more than 11 million decision makers in more than 20 of the world’s most competitive industries. Other publications in the group cover smart cities, supply chain, transport, and utility.
Want to follow companies that have stock tickers? Just enter them on Seeking Alpha and you can get email announcements that something new was just posted by an investor or market analyst explaining why Elon Musk pushed back Tesla’s Cybertruck deliveries to 2022; and similar analysis of other companies. Some of these companies get very little attention; perhaps you’ll just be receiving a brief summary of their quarterly earnings meeting. But there are millions of passionate investors out there who post commentaries, or at least read them and post comments. The best part is hearing about something first on Seeking Alpha and digging into it. That could provide more information on what’s happening in the Chinese and European electric vehicle markets.
Market Data on Energy and Fuel:
See how energy consumption has been utilized, and how it’s changed in recent years, by country. The measure in the first graph is millions of tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe), which is used to describe the energy content of all fuels. China, of course, was the world leader last year, with the US ahead of India by more than double the amount. You can also see how it measured over the past 20 years; and much more from the Enerdata Yearbook — including share of renewables in electricity production.
The International Energy Agency seems to be the leading source on global oil production and alliances between countries on energy supplies; and a major player in getting those alliances worked out. Published annually, its World Energy Outlook is a highly cited source on global energy developments. Its World Energy Model, a large-scale simulation tool, was developed by the IEA over a period of more than 20 years. It’s been designed to replicate how energy markets function. It’s a valuable tool for analyzing energy types and forecasts for demand, production, and pricing.
Interested in seeing how retail fuel prices have fluctuated in the US since 2000 — including gasoline, E85, CNG, LNG, propane, diesel, and B20 and other biodiesel combinations? If you go see the US Dept. of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center, you can adjust the parameters such as the timeframe and the fuels included in the graph. You can also see recent data on how these fuels have been in average prices over a quarterly period. Viewers can then go into sections on specific alternative fuels to learn much more about them and they’re utilized, and data on how they’re performing. Clean Cities Coalitions have tapped into this data collection for reports and public information campaigns over the years; and its a very good source for staying current on fluctuating trends.
Here’s a good place to look at how the major energy types are performing, and some predictions on where they may go if certain economic factors go as expected. It’s provided by the US Energy Information Administration. WTI crude oil and Brent crude oil dollars per barrel data is shown, along with gasoline, diesel, heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. You can look at how these indices have fluctuated in the US in recent years. There’s always new energy reports and charts being placed on this site. One of the recent ones has been Forecast Sensitivity of Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Temperatures.
Here’s another valuable, useful data tool from the US Dept. of Energy. This site now allows you to slice and dice the data to find out a whole lot. You can break out stations by biodiesel (B20 and above), compressed natural gas (CNG), electric, ethanol (E85), hydrogen, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and propane autogas (LPG). It does cover both the US and Canada. Did you know there are 881 public CNG stations, 53 hydrogen stations, and 1,863 propane stations available? Also there are 49,448 electric vehicle pubic charging stations (Level 2 and DC/fast charger) that offer about 119,000 charging outlets. While studying the map it looks like Canada has about 10 percent the size that the the US offers in charging stations, which is roughly the same population ratio between the two countries.
S&P offers one of the most respected consulting firms in energy and fuel consumption and forecasts. When you visit this site, you’ll see renewable energy forecasts, U.S. solar and wind projects, and the most recent power forecast. That study includes data and analysis of battery storage costs, growth of renewable power and battery storage, a forecast of natural gas prices, projected generation and capacity balances by energy type, and a forecast analyzing reserve margins of major power markets.
Stay tuned for more coverage of upcoming signifiant clean transportation events in the next edition. As for what’s coming up soon…………
CALSTART Policy Update — a members-only webinar will take place tomorrow, Wednesday, Aug. 11, at 9:00 am Pacific time. The organization will provide an interactive update on federal and state clean transportation policy. Hear about the recent and exciting progress on funding for clean vehicle and infrastructure incentives in California and Washington, D.C., CALSTART’s policy priorities, and new federal proposals for US Battery Leadership.
The 10th annual Green Transportation Summit & Expo (GTSE), which will take place Aug. 16-18 in Tacoma, Wash., is the region’s premier clean transportation convening event. With this year’s theme of Reflecting + Refocusing on a Resilient Future, particular attention will be given to recent events affecting our communities and livelihood. GTSE’s partnership with the U.S. EPA’s West Coast Collaborative and Mobilize California Summit brings stakeholders key to reducing heavy-duty diesel reductions in significant fleets across the continent. For the safety of all attendees GTSE currently plans to require masks at all times during the event, regardless of vaccination status, with the exception of meals. As the situation with COVID-19 is changing daily, the event organizers are closely monitoring the response by healthcare and government officials to ensure the protection of stakeholders.
ACT Expo is taking place Aug. 31 to Sept. 2 at the Long Beach Convention Center in Southern California. Revival of investments in advanced clean commercial vehicle technologies and fuels are making a comeback, with special purpose acquisition company, or SPAC, investments in the industry grabbing headlines throughout this past year.. ACT Expo’s opening panel will offer attendees a good look at funding opportunities and significant projects taking shape. More on ACT Expo in the next edition of Green Auto Market.
NGVAmerica’s Annual Meeting and Industry Summit
Registration is now open for NGV21, which will take place Oct. 19-21 at the Wigwam Arizona Resort in Phoenix. NGV21 is the only dedicated natural gas in transportation alternative fuels conference and show focused on the North American market. On-road, off-road and everything in between will be featured, from traditional freight, refuse, and transit applications to growing marine, rail, and construction use. Stay tuned for more.
And in other news…………
Fuel economy and emissions executive order: Thursday’s announcement by President Joe Biden formalized what his administration has been promising all along, to reverse the Trump administration’s course and return to what had been implemented by then-President Obama. The nonbonding deal with most automakers also directs them to make up half their sales with zero-emission vehicles by 2030. That would come from battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell electric vehicles.
Biden’s plan requires 10 percent emissions reductions in 2023 and 5 percent every year after that through 2026. Trump’s standards ended with the fleet averaging about 29 mpg through a real-world fuel economy guideline. The Biden rule should be close to reaching the target set up in the Obama administration’s mileage requirement, about 37 mpg.
It’s part of the Biden administration’s plan to fight climate change to get Americans to switch over from fossil fuels to advanced, clean, renewable energy and fuel. The ZEV plan would be reliant on major investments by the federal government in charging stations and other infrastructure. Biden said that it’s also part of the country’s objective to compete with China, a leader in the electric vehicle market.
The president made the announcement on the White House South Lawn, with a few zero-emission vehicles behind him. He was joined by executives from Ford, GM, and Stellantis, as well as leaders from the United Auto Workers union and members of Congress.
It’s not yet clear on how the infrastructure bill will affect emissions and new passenger vehicles sold, with more changes expected to come as Democrats prepare comprehensive budget proposals. However, the infrastructure bill that was passed today in the senate does offer a few positive outcomes, according to U.S. PIRG. That includes “the largest-ever federal investment in public transportation. It invests in electric school buses. It reinstates the ‘polluter pays’ taxes for hazardous waste Superfund site cleanups,” said U.S. PIRG’s Chairman Doug Phelps in a statement.
In-depth study on the equity of EV charging: Mobilyze.ai, the first location analytics and micro-targeting platform for the EV market and the Toyota Mobility Foundation, have some fascinating data to share on electric vehicle charging. Only 9.7 percent of households in US cities have access to a public EV charging station within a convenient quarter mile (or 5 minute) walk from home. Higher-income households live closer to charging in some large cities such as NYC and Chicago. However, in many US cities it is lower-income households who live closer to charging, in downtown areas and other public locations with significant t racial disparities to access EV charging.
That statement comes from a new report that provides a comprehensive analysis on access to EV charging in US cities, addressing dimensions including population coverage, wealth and racial disparities, and patterns of EV adoption. Mobiliyze.ai and Toyota Mobility Foundation are hoping that the Biden Administration and electric utilities that are planning to deploy public EV chargers prioritize an equitable rollout as well.
You can download the report here.
More on Tesla truck: Delivery dates for Tesla’s EV pickup, the Cybertruck, have unsurprisingly been pushed back to 2022. The delay, first spotted by Inside EVs, was confirmed on the vehicle’s website, which now states production will begin next year. Late 2021 had been the initial target timeframe. Inside EVs thinks the delays have something to do with Tesla’s factory in Texas, where the Cybertruck is going to be manufactured.
New paper explores California transit agencies and ZEVs: CALSTART’s new white paper, California Transit Agencies Chart a Course to Zero Emissions: A Review of Proposed ZEB Pathways Under the Innovative Clean Transit Regulation, looks at key data found in the plans that outline a gradual shift to zero-emissions buses by 2040 as required by the California Air Resources Board’s Innovative Clean Transit (ICT) regulation. More than half of responding agencies (10 out of 19) plan to purchase FCEBs, and two additional agencies will consider both FCEBs and BEBs in their undeclared acquisitions. These and other observations of these plan can be found in the new paper.